Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

  • Etiology: 2 types of global hypoxia
    — Profound hypoxia – from cardiac arrest or abruptio placenta – affects regions of highest oxygen demand: basal ganglia, ventral lateral thalami, brainstem, hippocampi, corticospinal tracts, sensorimotor cortex
    — Partial hypoxia – from decreased cerebral blood flow – affects watershed regions such as periventricular white matter of premature infant (periventricular leukomalacia) or gray matter white matter junction of full term infant, seen best in parasagittal images
  • CT: diffuse brain edema with pseudo subarachnoid hemorrhage, white cerebellar sign
  • MRI: restricted diffusion in basal ganglia + cortex

Cases of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy