Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

  • Etiology: 2 types of global hypoxia
    — Profound hypoxia – from cardiac arrest or abruptio placenta – affects regions of highest oxygen demand: basal ganglia, ventral lateral thalami, brainstem, hippocampi, corticospinal tracts, sensorimotor cortex
    — Partial hypoxia – from decreased cerebral blood flow – affects watershed regions such as periventricular white matter of premature infant (periventricular leukomalacia) or gray matter white matter junction of full term infant, seen best in parasagittal images
  • CT: diffuse brain edema with pseudo subarachnoid hemorrhage, white cerebellar sign
  • MRI: restricted diffusion in basal ganglia + cortex

Cases of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

CXR of esophageal temperature probe
CXR AP shows a nasogastric tube coursing within the esophagus into the stomach while the twisted wire probe next to it with its tip in the mid-esophagus represents an esophageal temperature probe in appropriate position. The patient is lying upon a cooling blanket while being cooled to treat their hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.
AXR of umbilical arterial catheter in the celiac artery
CXR AP shows the tip of the umbilical arterial catheter to be in the celiac artery. The tip of the umbilical venous catheter is at the junction of the inferior vena cava and right atrium. Esophageal temperature probe tip projects over the mid-esophagus. The patient is lying upon a cooling blanket.