Oligohydramnios

  • Etiology: 60% of amniotic fluid is from fetal urine so if fetal kidneys produce little urine (renal agenesis, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, renal obstruction (posterior urethral valves), Prune belly syndrome, bilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney) this leads to oligohyrdramnios which leads to fetal compression, also due to maternal factors (chronic leak of amniotic fluid / premature rupture of membranes / placental insufficiency)
  • Imaging: bell-shaped chest due to pulmonary hypoplasia, deformities of long bones, skull molding
  • Clinical: Potter’s facies – flattened face and low set ears due to fetal compression

Cases of Oligohydramnios

CXR of pulmonary hypoplasia due to oligohydramnios
CXR AP shows bilateral poorly developed and poorly expanded lungs.