Vesicoureteral Reflux

  • Etiology: incompetent vesicoureteral valve, ureteral insertion into ureterocele or bladder diverticulum
  • VCUG: grading – Grade I (reflux only in ureter) / Grade II (reflux into non-dilated collecting system) / Grade III (reflux into mildly dilated collecting system) / Grade IV (reflux into moderately dilated collecting system) / Grade V (reflux into markedly dilated collecting system)
  • RNC: less spatial resolution than VCUG but has lower radiation dose and continuous monitoring, excellent for following reflux once it is diagnosed
  • US: artificial collagen injections at vesicoureteral valve appears as echogenic bump at base of bladder
  • Treament: lower grades of reflux can be treated temporarily with artificial collagen injections at vesicoureteral valve
  • Clinical: lower grades of reflux usually resolve on their own as patient grows older

Cases of Vesicoureteral Reflux