DDX of types of esophageal atresia

Approach to the different types of esophageal atresia (EA):

  • Esophageal atresia with distal tracheo-esophageal fistula – most common EA, presence of distal gas makes the diagnosis
  • Esophageal atresia without tracheo-esophageal fistula (isolated EA) – second most common EA, absence of distal gas makes the diagnosis
  • Esophageal atresia with H-type tracheo-esophageal fistula – third most common EA, difficult to diagnose, suspect if clinically has recurrent aspiration pneumonia
  • Esophageal atresia with proximal tracheo-esophageal fistula + Esophageal atresia with proximal and distal tracheo-esophageal fistulas – difficult to diagnose prospectively from imaging