Patent ductus arteriosus

  • Etiology: failure of closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus leading to a left to right shunt
  • CXR: cardiomegaly and increased pulmonary blood flow that increases over time
  • Angiogram: simultaneous filling of the pulmonary artery and aorta when either is injected
  • Imaging: 33% have a ductus diverticulum which is a developmental outpouching aortic isthmus where ductus arteriosus attaches which also happens to be the site of 90% of post-traumatic aortic injuries so it should not be mistaken for a traumatic aortic pseudoaneurysm
  • Complications: prostaglandin E – keeps patent ductus arteriosus open in patent ductus arteriosus dependent congenital heart diseases (pulmonary atresia, hypoplastic left heart syndrome), can cause cortical hyperostosis, can cause gastric mucosal hypertrophy mimicing hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
  • Complications: indomethacin – closes patent ductus arteriosus, can cause gastrointestinal perforation
  • Clinical: acyanotic

Cases of Patent Ductus Arteriosus

CXR AP at 1 day of life (above) and 1 year of life (below) shows interval development of cardiomegaly and pulmonary vascular congestion.
Angiogram of patent ductus arteriosus
AP angiogram while injecting the pulmonary artery shows simultaneous filling of the descending aorta.
CXR of patent ductus arteriosus ductus diverticulum
CXR AP shows mild cardiomegaly and pulmonary vascular congestion along with an extra soft tissue mass just to the left of the spine near the presumed position of the ductus arteriosus.