Pulmonary Hypoplasia

  • Etiology: oligohydramnios, congenital diaphragmatic hernia
  • Imaging: airways and alveoli and pulmonary vessels are decreased in size and number leading to small lung volumes

Radiology Cases of Pulmonary Hypoplasia

Radiology Cases of Pulmonary Hypoplasia due to Oligohydramnios

CXR of pulmonary hypoplasia due to oligohydramnios
CXR AP shows bilateral poorly developed and poorly expanded lungs.

Radiology Cases of Pulmonary Hypoplasia due to Scoliosis

CXR of congenital scoliosis due to rib fusion
CXR AP shows multiple left-sided anterior and multiple right-sided posterior rib fusions and a mild curvature of the spine convex left resulting in a small thorax.

Radiology Cases of Pulmonary Hypoplasia due to Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

CXR after congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair showing no need for a chest tube
CXR AP (above) taken immediately postop shows that the hypoplastic left lung cannot expand to completely fill the pleural space particularly in the basilar region and subsequently there is a moderate amount of air in the pleural space. This should not be called a pneumothorax. CXR AP taken 1 day later (below) shows the left pleural space now filling with fluid.

Clinical Cases of Potter Syndrome Due to Pulmonary Hypoplasia

Clinical image of Potter syndrome due to pulmonary hypoplasia
Clinical image shows a flattened nose, recessed chin, prominent epicanthial folds and low set of abnormal ears.