Testicle Torsion

  • 3 types: prenatal, extravaginal (neonatal), intravaginal (post-neonatal)
  • Prenatal
    — Etiology: Occurs in utero
    — Clinical: presents as painless palpable hard mass with pigmentation of scrotum, 75% of torsion
  • Extravaginal in neonates
    — Etiology: torsion of spermatic cord + tunica
    — Imaging: absent blood flow by color + spectral doppler, heterogenous parenchyma, small anechoic areas, peripheral eggshell like hyperechogenicities, decreased or increased size of testicle, hydrocele, kiwi sign
    — Clinical: presents as painful red scrotum
  • Intravaginal in 3 – 20 year old
    — Etiology: torsion of spermatic cord caused by bell clapper deformity
    — Imaging: absent intratesticular blood flow by color + spectral doppler, whirlpool sign of spermatic cord, enlarged edematous testis

Cases of Testicle Torsion