Pediatric Typhlitis

  • Etiology: immune suppressed / neutropenic patients infected with candida, pseudomonas, cytomegalovirus
  • Imaging: predominantly in terminal ileum / cecum / right colon, see intestinal wall thickening, may see pneumatosis, can perforate
  • Clinical: occurs up to 30 days post bone marrow transplant

Radiology Cases of Typhlitis

CT and US of typhlitis
AXR AP (above left) is unremarkable. Axial CT with contrast of the abdomen (above right) shows moderate thickening of the cecum. Transverse and sagittal US of the cecum (below) shows a moderately thickened cecum lying above the right psoas muscle.