Differential diagnosis of pediatric cerebral vascular malformations

Approach to the differential diagnosis of cerebral vascular malformations:

  • High flow
    Intracranial arteriovenous malformation – often presents with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage
    Vein of Galen malformation – often presents with heart failure
  • Low flow
    Cavernous malformation – often presents incidentally, classically has hemosiderin ring from prior microhemorrhage
    Developmental venous anomaly – an incidental finding
    Sinus pericranii – usually involves the cranial vault and the sagittal sinus