Newborn with bilious vomiting and a double bubble sign on AXR

Surgical image of duodenal atresia
In the operating room the duodenum was seen to taper between its second and third portions. A nasogastric tube could not be advanced past this area of tapering. There appeared to be a membrane obstructing the duodenum at this point. A duodenotomy was performed which confirmed the presence of a thick membrane completely obstructing the duodenum. Bile was seen above and below this membrane. The bile was coming from one papilla above the membrane and one papilla below it. Surgical image shows the superior retractor distracting the proximal duodenum and the inferior retractor distracting the distal duodenum. The obstructing membrane is seen between the retractors. The obstructing membrane was then incised.

The diagnosis was duodenal atresia.

Infant with left otitis media and left neck swelling

CT of coalescent mastoiditis
Axial and coronal CT with contrast of the neck with soft tissue windows (above) show extensive left cervical adenopathy and inflammation. Axial CT with contrast of the neck with bone windows (below) show bilateral complete opacification of the mastoid air cells and subtle erosive changes in the anterior aspect of the left temporal bone. There were no intracranial findings.

The diagnosis was left coalescent mastoiditis.

School ager with pus draining from the right ear

CT of coalescent mastoiditis with intracranial abscess
Axial CT with contrast of the brain with bone windows (left) shows opacification and destruction of the right mastoid air cells while axial CT with contrast of the brain with soft tissue windows (right) shows a large low density ring enhancing lesion in the right cerebral hemisphere that is causing midline shift to the left.

The diagnosis was right coalescent mastoiditis with an intracranial abscess.

Teenager with left orbital and forehead swelling

CT of Pott puffy tumor and subdural empyema
Sagittal CT with contrast of the brain shows frontal and left maxillary sinusitis and extensive soft tissue swelling anterior to the forehead (upper left) and destruction of the anterior left frontal bone in the frontal sinus and extensive soft tissue swelling anterior to the left orbit (upper right). Coronal (lower left) and sagittal (lower right) T1 MRI with contrast of the brain shows diffuse meningeal enhancement, subdural empyemas along the falx and both cerebral convexities, and multiple large non-enhancing subgaleal fluid collections in the left scalp.

The diagnosis was meningitis, subdural empyema, and Pott puffy tumor as complications of sinusitis.

School ager who does not take care of their teeth and had a seizure

MRI of intracranial abscess due to sinusitis
Axial T2 MRI of the brain (above left) shows a mass in the right front lobe with surrounding vasogenic edema. Axial (above right) and coronal (below right) T1 MRI with contrast shows the mass to have thin rim enhancement and the coronal image also shows left maxillary sinusitis. The mass is shown to demonstrate diffusion restriction on diffusion-weighted imaging (below left).

The diagnosis was intracranial abscess as a complication of sinusitis.

Toddler with stridor since birth

Surgical image of right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery
Surgical image taken through a left thoracotomy shows a blue vessel loop around the ligamentum arteriosum which was compressing the esophagus posterior to it. The red vessel loops are around the right aortic arch (on the right) and the left subclavian artery (on the left). The vascular ring was subsequently divided by division of the ligamentum arteriosum. The vascular ring then sprang open dramatically, relieving its compression upon the esophagus.

The diagnosis was right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery and ligamentum arteriosum forming an incomplete vascular ring.

School ager with seizures

MRI of perisylvian polymicrogyria and open lip schizencephaly
Coronal and axial T1 (above) and axial T2 (below) MRI without contrast of the brain shows small haphazard appearing gyri and too few sulci present bilaterally, left greater than right, primarily in the sylvian fissures. There is also a cleft of gray matter with cerebrospinal fluid within extending from the cortex to the posterior aspect of the left lateral ventricle.

The diagnosis was bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria in a patient with left open lip schizencephaly.