Teenager with new onset seizure

CT and MRI of glioblastoma
Axial CT without contrast of the brain (above left) shows a hypodense, ill-defined, infiltrative mass centered in the left basal ganglia that contains coarse calcifications. Axial T2 (above right), T1 without contrast (below left) and T1 MRI with contrast (below right) of the brain show the mass to be heterogenous in nature and to have some heterogenous areas of enhancement.

The diagnosis was glioblastoma.

Teenager with back pain and lumbar scoliosis for 1 year

MRI of ganglioglioma of the spinal cord
Sagittal T1 (above left) and T2 (above middle) MRI of the spine show an intramedullary tumor of the spinal cord extending from T10 to T12 that on sagittal T1 MRI with contrast (above right) shows heterogenous enhancement. Axial T2 MRI (below) better demonstrates the cord expansion caused by the tumor.

The diagnosis was ganglioglioma of the spinal cord in a patient with painful scoliosis.

Preschooler with right hydronephrosis

Surgery image of retrocaval ureter causing ureteropelvic junction obstruction
Surgical image (above) shows the decompressed distal right ureter (with the black loop around it) emerging from behind the inferior vena cava in the center of the image. The dilated proximal right ureter can be see just to the right of the inferior vena cava at the top of the image. Post operative surgical image (below) shows the red vessel loops around the now decompressed proximal right ureter which has been transected and reanastomosed anterior to the inferior vena cava in the center of the image.

The diagnosis was retrocaval ureter causing ureteropelvic junction obstruction.

Preschooler with increased perspiration

Surgery image of pheochromocytoma
Surgical image shows a 6 cm dumbbell shaped tumor that was adherent to the inferior vena cava with tumor extension via the adrenal vein into the inferior vena cava. The dark ovoid mass in the center of the image is the main portion of the tumor. The glistening white smaller mass is a portion of the tumor inside the lumen of the opened inferior vena cava. Vascular clamps are on the inferior vena cava above and below the tumor.

The diagnosis was pheochromocytoma.

School ager with hypertension and neurofibromatosis Type 1

CT angiogram and spectral doppler US of bilateral renal artery stenosis in a patient with neurofibromatosis Type 1
3D reconstruction of a CT angiogram with contrast of the chest and abdomen (left) shows diffuse moderate narrowing of the mid aorta and marked narrowing of the origins of the renal arteries bilaterally. Spectral doppler US of the renal arteries (right) shows parvus tardis waveforms within them bilaterally.

The diagnosis was bilateral renal artery stenosis in a patient with neurofibromatosis Type 1.