School ager with juvenile idiopathic arthritis with neck pain and torticollis for 6 weeks

CT of atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation due to juvenile idiopathic arthritis
Axial images from a CT without contrast of the cervical spine shows the C1 vertebral body rotated to the left approximately 45 degrees (top) in relation to the C2 vertebral body (middle). A MIP image (bottom) better demonstrates the rotation of C1 on C2.

The diagnosis was atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation due to juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

Preschooler with fever and torticollis

CT of atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation due to retropharyngeal abscess
Axial images with bone windows from a CT with contrast of the neck shows the C1 vertebral body (above left) rotated approximately 30 degrees to the right in relation to the C2 vertebral body (above right). Axial image with soft tissue windows (below) from the same CT shows a low density fluid collection with an enhancing rim to the left of midline in the retropharyngeal space.

The diagnosis was atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation due to a retropharyngeal abscess.

School ager with a rapidly enlarging soft tissue mass of the right chest and arm

CXR and CT of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in neurofibromatosis type 1
CXR PA and lateral shows a right apical thoracic mass with associated rib thinning that had rapidly increased in size in a short interval. Axial CT without contrast of the chest better defined the right apical mass and demonstrated multiple serpiginous nodules in the soft tissues of the right anterior chest wall.

The diagnosis was degeneration of a plexiform neurofibroma into a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1.

Infant who was on arterial-venous ECMO post cardiac arrest and has just been taken off of ECMO

CT of intraventricular hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral atrophy in a patient on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
Axial CT without contrast of the brain shows mixed-density fluid in the left lateral ventricle posteriorly and mixed-density fluid in the left parietal-occipital lobe. There is also diffuse prominence of the sulci and ventricular system.

The diagnosis was intraventricular hemorrhage on ECMO and intracerebral hemorrhage on ECMO and cerebral atrophy post ECMO.

Newborn with a prenatal diagnosis of hydrocephalus, status post VP shunt placement

CT of over-shunting
Initial axial CT without contrast of the brain (above) showed marked dilation of the lateral, third and fourth ventricles. Axial CT without contrast of the brain 1 day after shunt placement (below) shows interval decompression of the ventricular system and interval development of large bilateral subdural hygromas.

The diagnosis was subdural hygroma development due to over-shunting.