Toddler with right scrotal pain who had suffered non-accidental trauma

CT of testicular hematoma
Axial CT with contrast of the abdomen (above) shows a heterogenous appearance to the enlarged right testicle which is surrounded by an edematous scrotal sac. Sagittal US of the right scrotum (below) again shows the thickened edematous scrotal sac, the heterogenous testicle, and an anechoic fluid collection surrounding the testicle.

The diagnosis was testicular hematoma surrounded by a reactive hydrocele and a scrotal hematoma secondary to trauma.

Infant with enlarged left scrotum and elevated AFP

US of testicular yolk sac tumor
Transverse color doppler US of the scrotum (above) shows the left testicle is hypervascular and much larger in size than the right testicle. Sagittal US of the left testicle (below) shows the testicular enlargement is due to a large round mass in the superior aspect of the testicle that is discrete from the normal testicle inferiorly.

The diagnosis was yolk sac tumor of the testicle.

Infant with non-bilious and bilious vomiting

Surgical image of Meckel's diverticulum
Surgical image shows shows multiple dilated loops of small bowel in the background with a sharp transition point seen in the center of the image in the terminal ileum where on its anti-mesenteric border a diverticulum is seen with an omphalomesenteric duct remnant coming off it. This remnant had been attached to the under surface of the umbilicus, serving as a fulcrum for a small bowel volvulus, resulting in a small bowel obstruction.

The diagnosis was Meckel’s diverticulum causing a small bowel volvulus and a small bowel obstruction.

Infant with urinary tract infection

US of duplicated kidney with ectopic ureterocele and hydroureteropyonephrosis
Sagittal US of the right kidney (upper left) shows a duplicated renal collecting system with the upper pole replaced by a round structure filled with echogenic material. Sagittal US of the right upper pole ureter (upper right) shows a tortuous ureter filled with echogenic material. Transverse US of the bladder (lower left) shows a round structure in the right side of the bladder that has echogenic material in its inferior portion and anechoic material in its superior portion. Sagittal US of the right ureter and bladder (lower right) shows the tortuous right ureter filled with echogenic material on the left side of the image and the rounded structure with the fluid-fluid level in the right side of the bladder.

The diagnosis was acute pyelonephritis in a duplicated kidney with an ectopic ureterocele with hydroureteropyonephrosis throughout the upper pole of the right kidney and right upper pole ureter and ureterocele.

Infant with respiratory distress due to respiratory syncytial virus

CXR and CT of intrathoracic kidney
CXR AP (upper left) shows a rounded mass in the left lower lobe which appears posterior in location on the CXR lateral (upper right). Coronal and axial CT with contrast of the chest (below) shows the left kidney to be in the lower left hemithorax. In the operating room, a defect at the foramen of Bochdalek was noted and repaired after the kidney had been reduced into the abdomen.

The diagnosis was intrathoracic kidney due to congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

School ager with congenital anomaly of the urinary tract

Angiogram of cross fused renal ectopia
AP image from a selective angiogram injection of the left renal artery shows fusion of the medial aspect of the left kidney, which has crossed the midline, to the medial aspect of the right kidney, causing the right kidney to be displaced laterally. A right hemivertebra is also present just above the T10 vertebral body.

The diagnosis was cross fused renal ectopia in a patient with a hemivertebra.