Differential diagnosis of pediatric orbital masses

Approach to the differential diagnosis of orbital masses:

Orbital mass by location:

Lateral OrbitMedial Orbit
Superior OrbitDermoidEncephalocele, Rhabdomyosarcoma
Inferior OrbitLangerhans cell histiocytosis, NeuroblastomaDacrocystocele

Note: Lymphatic malformation can be in any location

Orbital mass by enhancement:

Positive contrast enhancementNo contrast enhancement
Increased T2 signal intensityHemangiomaIntracranial arteriovenous malformation
Very increased T2 signal intensityVenous malformationLymphatic malformation